Studies have shown that the FDA approved PPAR agonist, Actos, used to treat type 2 diabetes, is effective in treating many autoimmune disorders. These include rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis. Crohn’s Disease, Alzheimers Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and psoriasis. In patients with secondary Multiple Sclerosis daily treatment with Actos induced clinical improvement without adverse events. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) have been found to reduce inflammation of brain glial cells. Glial cells are inflamed in children with autism. PPAR’s function as regulators of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis and influence cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. PPAR’s are expressed in liver, muscle, kidney, heart, intestine and adipose tissue. PPARs have been suggested in the potential role of not only metabolic but also in inflammation control. PPAR activators have been shown to inhibit the activation of inflammatory response gene, NF-kB. Actos inhibits the NF-kB signaling pathway. It is for similar reasons that PPAR agonists have potential therapeutic applications in inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and autistic spectrum disorders It is for similar reasons that PPAR agonists should be considered for use in children with ASD. In over 350 cases in our office, there have been significant subjective responses in over 75% of the children. These include improved speech and language, focusing and socialization skills. We are planning a double blind controlled study with the Department of Neurology at the University of Illinois to evaluate the clinical response of Actos in ASD patients.